Brian's Kenpo Page - Terminology
Kenpo Terms And Definitions

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M]
[N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

- A -

Adjust - Part of the formulation process where you can calibrate the range, angle of execution, or both.

Alphabet of Motion - Each move learned in Kenpo, whether used defensively, offensively, or to serve both purposes, is viewed as part of the alphabet of motion.

Alter - Part of the formulation process where you can vary the weapon, target, or both.

Alternating Zones - General rule is to strike different zones, or alternate zones to get `rocking' effect. Glancing Salute is a good example.

Anatomical Positioning - Calculated striking of vital targets to force an opponent into preconceived postural positions that will make the next target of your choice readily accessible for a successful follow-up.

Anatomical Week Points - Essential body parts which can be rendered helpless or have a fatal effect when struck.

And - A word in our Kenpo vocabulary that is eliminated by the more adept. It involves time and therefore is contradictory to economy of motion, a principle well worth following.

Angle of Deflection - On high block keep arm bent at a 45 degree angle above our head to get Angle of deflection to keep strike from pounding on our arm or hitting us.

Angle of Disturbance - That angle which, when a move is executed, does not necessarily injure, but rather upsets an opponent's balance.

Angle of Execution - Any angle which, when an attack is executed, produces maximum results.

Angle of Incidence - Refers to your weapon making contact with your target on a perpendicular angle (right angle to each other) that will render the greatest effect.

Angle of No Return - Refers to the position and angle of the upper body and hips while delivering a front kick or forward motion, making it awkward, difficult, and illogical to attempt to return to your starting position. Because of the awkwardness and the time needed to return to your original position, exposure of your vital areas would work in your opponent's favor--not to mention your inability to render an immediate counter.

Angles of Travel - Entails a more precise and acute viewpoint of direction. They describe direction as degrees of measurement. Angles of travel employ the "compass principle" where a student is made to visualize specific degrees on the compass to view motions of attack and defense.

- B -

Back-Up-Mass - The use of body weight that is directly behind the action that is taking place. For example, (1) a punch delivered when the elbow is directly behind the fist, or (2) the bracing of one finger directly behind the other when delivering a two finger chop to the throat, etc. Back-Up Mass is greatly enhanced when proper body alignment is achieved. Body alignment gets mass into proper perspective and allows the body to take full advantage of channeling weight and energy while traveling in the same direction (directional harmony)

Balance - Two triangles, head and chest. If they point in different directions, balance is off.

Basics - Simplified moves that comprise the fundamentals of Kenpo. They are divided into stances, maneuvers, blocks, strikes, parries, kicks, punches, specialized moves and methods, etc.

Belt Ranking System - A colored belt system used to grade the students' ability and proficiency. This judgment is determined after a student undergoes a performance test.

Black Dot Focus - Our Kenpo concept of focus. We visualize a black dot on a white background representing total awareness. Our concern is not only to maximize power, but protection as well (compare to White Dot Focus).

Block - A defensive maneuver used to check or hinder an opponent.

Bob and Weave - Body maneuvers used to avoid an attack. A "bob" involves a vertical movement of the body. A "weave" is a horizontal side to side movement of the body.

Body Alignment - This involves the placing of angles into perspective. It is the coordination of body parts in order to harmonize the angles at which they travel. All parts of the body are aligned to travel in one direction. This principle, when followed, automatically triggers the principle of back-up-mass where body weight enhances your action.

Body Fulcrum - Using the natural curvatures of the body as launching platforms to accelerate the speed and force of the Conchaku or other short weapon.

Body Fusion - A concept in which body parts move as a unit prior to relaying action to other parts of the body. These body parts are literally fused together in order to function as a single unit. Body fusion can occur any time during the course of a sequential flow of action.

Body Momentum - The utilization of body weight to increase the force of your action. It involves the coordination of mind, breath, strength, and body weight while shuffling forward or in reverse so that all forces are moving in unison.

Branch - Refers to the leg as used in a technique.

Borrowed Force - An opponent's force which is used to defeat him. This can be accomplished by going with the opponent's force or, upon occasion, going against his force. The concept allows your opponent's force to enhance the effectiveness of your action.

Borrowed Reach - You can have Borrowed Reach without Borrowed Force, but not the other way around. Use Borrowed Reach to get Borrowed Force. A kick to the groin, gives you Borrowed Reach (bends attacker over and gets them closer to us) but we don't get Borrowed Force until you follow the kick with a strike.

By-The-Numbers - Methods used to teach beginners the basics. Each step is given a number. This is similar in principle to using phonics.

- C -

Capoeira - An excellent Brazilian method of self-defense. Experts of Capoeira resemble graceful dancers. They employ cartwheels, handsprings, ground techniques, and takedowns to effectively subdue their opponents.

Catches - Involve the use of either the hand or the armpits in stopping or delaying the continuous action of a Conchaku for purposes of quickly changing hands and/or directions.

Catching - A method of stopping and detaining an opponent's strike or block.

Category Completion - Techniques can be grouped according to levels of difficulty or danger. For each of these groups, a single technique can be run. For example; Lone Kimono, Raking Mace, Twin Kimono, Mace of Aggression and Cross of Death deal with grabs - single, double, push, pull, choke. They are essentially the same technique, altered to account for distance and position.

Check - To restrain, hinder, or repress an opponent from taking action. This is accomplished by pressing, pinning, or hugging an opponent usually at the joints so that it minimizes his leverage and nullifies his actions.

Chi - A Chinese term used to describe the powers that can be generated when the mind and body are totally unified. It involves total complete synchronization of mind, breath, and strength to achieve maximum force. It is that extra inner force created by the precise synchronization of the conscious and subconscious mind, along with an individual's breath and strength.

Circular Movements - Moves that predominantly loop or follow a curve. Such moves can be used defensively or offensively.

Classical - Traditional methods and moves used by the so called, "pure system" of Martial Arts.

Claws - Refers to the fingertips as used in a technique

Clock Principle - A system, in teaching, which was developed by Ed Parker to help the student to visually imagine the direction which he is to follow. He is generally asked to think of himself as being in the middle of a big clock facing 12 o'clock with 6 o'clock to the rear, 3 and 9 to his right and left and all other number in their respective places.

Close Range Encounters - Action that occurs within elbow and knee distance.

Common Sense - It is that sixth sense that many lack. It is the ability to overcome problems and difficult situations by using logic.

Complimentary Angle - A strike or block that follows a path or angle that parallels an attacking weapon, a defensive posture, the contour of an opponent, or a given line. Following these angular paths allows clear entry to desired target. Taking advantage of these angular opportunities helps to produce maximum results as well as cause greater damage.

Conchaku - Newly innovated nunchaku developed by Francisco Conde.

Conditioned Response - To conform and respond instantaneously to a given variable.

Conscious Mind - A section of our mind (brain) that we use on a daily basis which allows us to think while we are awake.

Contact Placements - Predetermined knowledge of the targets which you plan to strike using the weapon of your choice.

Contouring Principle - This concept involves using the outline of your or your opponent's body as a homing device or guide to accomplish certain feats. The concept is divided into two basic categories--methods that employ (1) body contact or (2) non-body contact. There are many sub-divisions to this concept.

Controlling - (1) The ability to restrain oneself from all out action, or execute action with regulatory frequency and persistence. (2) The use of various techniques employed to restrain your opponent from taking all out action.

Cover - The repositioning of your body into a protective pose while creating distance between you and your opponent. This is usually done by shifting the forward leg to the opposite side as you turn and face the opposite direction.

Counter Manipulation - That stage of motion that is utilized just prior to employing the principle of opposing forces to its maximum.

Creed - A modern code of ethics authored by Ed Parker for Martial Artists in today's environment. It reads as follows: "I come to you with only Karate, empty hands, I have no weapons, but should I be forced do defend myself, my principles or my honor, should it be a matter of life or death, of right or wrong; then here are my weapons, Karate, my empty hands."

Crescent - A path of action that can be compared and paralleled to a hooking type maneuver.

- D -

Dark/Darkness - Refers to attacks from the rear or flank (coming from the unknown) as used in a technique

Dead/Live - A grab is a Dead attack, a push is Semi-Live, a punch is Live

Deflecting Block - When we move straight back we use a deflecting block to get Angle of incidence (Deflecting Hammer, Retreating & Hugging Pendulum)

Depth Cancellation - Getting in close to an attacker. We decrease the distance between them and us.

Depth Penetration - The concept of going beyond the point of contact when you are striking with a weapon.

Depth Perception - The ability to judge the distance of objects.

Depth Zones - One of the categorical zones of protection . It entails the protection of approximately seven depth zones. These are vertical zones viewed from the side.

Deviate Weapon/Target - Move away from where strike is coming and/or parry/block the strike.

Dimensional Zone Theory - It was created to teach students of American Kenpo how to use their imagination to visually divide their opponent's body into vertical and horizontal zones (sections) as viewed from the front, side, or back. This in turn allows a student to subdivide an opponent into four basic zones--height, width, depth, and zones of obscurity. Knowledge of this theory can also be used to keep your opponent's dimensions in check. Controlling your opponent's actions by restricting the use and versatility of his dimensions (angle of cancellation), makes retaliation by your opponent considerably difficult.

Dimensions of Travel - Are concerned with the height, width, and depth of motion, or the height, width and depth that can be created and controlled by motion.

Direction - Refers to the direction from which opponent's or your action may stem. It is one of the ingredients that make up the analytical study of motion.

Directional Change - The ability to switch or alter directions while keeping the momentum of your body flowing constantly so as not to interrupt the initial motion started.

Double Factor - It entails utilizing dual movements to defend yourself. These moves can incorporate any combination of blocks, parries, and checks. It also refers to sophisticated moves which are dually defensive and offensive. Reverse motion is an integral part of this concept.

- E -

Economy of Motion - Any movement that takes less time to execute and still causes the intended effect.

Eighteen Hand Movements - The original number of hand movements first developed to defend or attack an opponent. These moves supposedly formed the foundations of Shaolin Boxing.

Embryonic Moves - Simple basic movements which are generally singular in both action and purpose.

Empty Hands - A term associated with all Martial Art Systems that employ only natural body weapons while defending or attacking.

Engineer of Motion - Is that stage in a student's study where he not only can dissect motion, inspect it, understand it, and reassemble it like a mechanic, but extends beyond that point. At this stage he can rearrange, fuse, or create more sophisticated principles. These may stem from a combination of principles, but, nevertheless, they do take on a new perspective.

Environmental Awareness - The ability to observe daily condition and surrounding and make on the spot decisions to either avoid danger or take advantage of the opportunities offered.

Environmental Objects - Useable objects that surround us (a pole, wall, chair, table, etc.), or that are on us ( a comb, keys, brush, tube, pen, pencil, belt, purse, etc.) which we can use as weapons of defense.

Equation Formula - This is a special formula that one can follow in determining and developing specific fighting patterns that are practical and logical. The formula allows one a more conclusive basis for negotiating alternate actions.

Exaggerated Step - Is another simplified term to describe a kick.

Explosive Action - Instantaneous reaction that ignites and bursts from inside out with repetitive succession.

Extended Outward - A type of block that is delivered out, up and away from the body. It is a block used at medium range.

External Physical Weakness - Self induced weakening of the body imposed by outward forces such as steam, fire, etc. to humble the soul.

- F -

Family Related Moves - The use of the same move or moves against a number of predicaments that are basically similar in context, but so often overlooked as similar in principle. For example, the answer to a wrist grab can, with some minor alteration, be the same as a hair or lapel grab. The basic action is to control the opponent's wrist while striking against the joint of his elbow. The answer to a "rear bear hug", arms free, can also work if the arms are pinned or if the hug was converted into a "full nelson".

Fan - Refers to circular parries as used in a technique

Feathers - Refers to the hair.

Feel - A word used to describe the foot or hand as it slides from one point to another. In the case of the foot, the concept teaches you to move your foot back ever so slightly so that it literally feels the ground when it is sliding in the hope of overcoming possible obstacles.

Feint - A misleading move used to deceive an opponent.

Fighting Sentence - Combined movements of hands and feet that are used in sequence both defensively and offensively.

Fitting - Applying the shape of a natural weapon to fit the target being struck. It is like fitting a puzzle in place. The effectiveness of a strike is enhanced when you use shapes that match. It is one of the methods of contouring.

Focus - Is the result of the entire body working as a unit at the very instant a target is struck. The concentration of mind (knowledge) breath, strength, and methods of execution must unite as one in conjunction with body momentum, torque, gravitational marriage, timing, speed, penetration, etc.

Form - Is literally a short story of motion. These motions are offensive and defensive maneuvers incorporated into a dance for purposes of learning, home training and exercise. They are usually done without a partner.

Formulate - The combining of moves into a systematized order, which when properly organized, develops into a logical and practical sequential arrangement.

Formulation Phase - This is the third analytical process of dissecting a technique. It involves the actual application of your newly found alternatives to the original ideal or fixed technique.

Freestyle - A Martial Arts term for sparring with one or more competitors. Sparring is usually extemporaneous.

Frictional Pull - Used to cancel an attackers height thereby removing some of attackers weapons.

Full Contact - Is the professional method of freestyling (sparring) where actual hitting is accepted as part of the rules.

- G -

Gift - Refers to a handshake as used in a technique

Glancing - A method of striking that is similar to a slice. The major difference is that the depth of penetration is much greater. It does not skim the surface of the target, but makes a deep penetration.

Grafting - Is the combining of several principles within the flow of a single action. For example a strike may start with a hammering motion, but conclude with a thrusting action without disturbing the natural flow of the executed move. The term also refers to combining self-defense techniques without disruption in their completed or uncompleted state.

Gravitational Check - A form of contouring where parts of an arm or leg rests on a particular surface area on an opponent's body to prevent him from obtaining height and leverage. This restriction can detain or prevent an opponent from taking action that can be detrimental.

Gravitational Marriage - The uniting of mind, breath, and strength while simultaneously dropping your body weight along with the execution of your natural weapon(s). Timing all of these factors with the dropping of your body weight greatly adds to the force of your strikes. This combined actions literally causes a marriage with gravity and is thus, often referred to as "marriage of gravity".

- H -

Hairpin - Refers to a path of action that resembles the shape of a hairpin. It is a method of execution that elongates the circle and rounds off the corner.

Hammering - A particular method of striking which resembles the action of a hammer pounding a nail from various angles.

Hammering Block - When we step to an angle we use a hammering block to get angle of incidence (Checking & Evading the storm, Thrusting salute, Buckling Branch)

Height Cancellation - Bending attackers over to keep them below us. Normally done by kick or strike to groin or knee. When you remain in the center-line of an attacker, you MUST cancel their height zone. Examples; Mace of Aggression, Snapping Twig, Raking Mace.

Height Zones - One of the divisions of the dimensional zone theory. Zones related to this division encompass protection or attack on three levels. These levels are viewed horizontally-from the head to the solar plexus, the solar plexus to the groin, and the groin to the feet.

Hook - A type of punch used by boxers that makes contact with the opponent on the down side of his circling action. In short, contact is made after the fist passes the apex of the circle. Kicks can also follow the same principle.

Hooking - The execution of a natural weapon that makes contact with its target after passing the apex of the circle in which it travels. Contact is made on the downside or return of the circle in which your weapon travels.

Horse Sense - The same as common sense.

Hwarang-do - A Korean Martial Art system that taught high principles and philosophies. Advocates were dedicated to the cultivation of spirit and health among the youth along with self-defense disciplines.

- I -

Ideal Phase - The first analytical process of dissecting a technique. It entails structuring specific and fixed moves of a selected sequence of movements which take into consideration the anticipated reactions that can stem from them.

Ideas - Moves in Kenpo are taught to be no more than ideas which can vary with each changing situation.

Inside Block - When blocking on inside of attackers arm the block should be between the wrist and elbow (Delayed Sword, Sword of Destruction, five swords)

Inside Downward - A particular method of blocking below your waist that requires you blocking arm to travel from outside in.

Internal Power - Force from within developed via Chi.

Intuitive Awareness - Refers to paranormal perception.

Internal Organs - Refers to interrelated parts of the human body that function together to maintain life. These diverse organs are composed of the heart, kidneys, lungs, spleen, brain, nervous systems, eyes, etc.

Inward Parry - A blocking method (usually with an open hand) that requires your blocking arm to travel from outside in as it redirects a blow or kick by riding or going with the force.

- J -

Jamming - A special method of blocking that crowds or forces an opponent's natural weapon back and against his joint of prevent it from moving or functioning. It can also be accomplished by forcing an opponent's limb against other parts of his anatomy.

Jiu-Jitsu - An oriental form of wrestling known as the "body art". It involves twisting, spraining, dislocating, breaking, and using other like means to the joints and pressure points of the anatomy. Throwing is also an integral part of the art.

Judo - A more gentle form of oriental wrestling. Referred to as the "gentle way" it employs grabs, hip and shoulder throws, in addition to arm or leg locks and holds.

Jump - A maneuvering method which involves moving forward, back, or sideways by vigorously springing or leaping to avoid or execute an attack.

- K -

Kajukenbo - An offshoot of William Chow's original methods of Kenpo Karate that was created by Adriano and Joe Emperado in Hawaii.

Karate - A recent term used by the Japanese to describe the oriental boxing systems of Japan and Okinawa.

Karateka - A student of the Martial Arts.

Kata - A Japanese term for the word form which is used in American Kenpo.

Kenpo - As spelled, is a modern term describing one of the more innovative systems of the Martial Arts practiced primarily in Hawaii and the America's. Ken means fist and po means law. Thus Kenpo means fist law.

Kenpo Karate - The term used by William Chow to describe the art he was teaching in Hawaii during the 1930's to 1970's. As described and taught by Parker, it literally means "law of the fist and empty hand".

Ken To - The Japanese term for boxing. Ken means fist and to means fight. Thus, Ken To means fist fight.

Ki - A Japanese term for Chi.

Kiai - A loud noise cause by the rapid expulsion of air from the diaphragm of the body. This expulsion of air creates stability, increases force, fortifies the body and can have a psychological effect upon your opponent. Kiai originally meant "breathing exercise".

Kill or Be Killed - A method of combat learned by the military during World War II. It was a condensed form of combat utilizing Martial Arts concepts concentrating on techniques that brought about instant disability or death.

Knockout - Is a term used to describe a victim in an unconscious state. It is also a term used by some of the professional karate tournaments who allow competitors to literally knock their opponents out.

- L -

Lance - Refers to a knife attack as used in a technique

Laymen - Beginners in the Martial Arts.

Leaves - Refers to the fingers as used in a technique.

Leap - A springing type jump for purposes of evasion or attack.

Light Contact - Usually occurs in amateur karate tournaments where competitors are not allowed to make heavy contact. Only light contact is allowed. Infraction of these rules can mean disqualification from the match and/or tournament.

Linear Movements - Moves that are direct and follow a straight path.

Line of Attack - The path that an opponent follows when he is attacking. This line of attack can come from any direction based on the clock principle.

Line of Sight - The path of a moving target brought into alignment.

Lock-Out - A type of check that is used to slightly detain the action of your opponent. It involves striking a target with a natural weapon and having the weapon remain on the target for a time before retrieving it.

Locks - Moves that lock the joints or body parts of your opponent to restrain him from taking further action. It combines methods of pushing and pulling.

Long Range Encounters - Action that occurs at arm length or the length of a leg.

- M -

Mace - Refers to a punch as used in a technique

Major Moves - Strong and positive moves which cause immediate devastation.

Maneuvers - Ways you can move your feet, arms or body to initiate or avoid an attack i.e., to close or extend one's range.

Margin For Error - Means less chance a block will miss, i.e. more room on our block.

Martial Arts - Is the term that is generally used to describe the self-defense systems of the Orient, most of which are Chinese in origin.

Martial Artist - An individual who is an actual practitioner of the Martial Arts.

Master Key Move - A single move that can be used in more than one predicament with equal effect. For example, a rear heel kick, shin scrape, and instep stomp can be used for a full nelson, bear hug with the arms free or pinned, rear arm lock, etc. Or, an arm break can be applied to a cross wrist grab, a lapel grab, or hair grab--application of the arm break would remain constant, but the methods of controlling the wrist would vary.

Mathematical and Geometric

Symbol Concepts - This concept can be paralleled with the clock principle and, therefore, each method can be used interchangeably thus providing similar results and benefits.

Mechanic of Motion - One who can dissect motion, inspect it, understand it, and reassemble it.

Mechanical Stage - Is that stage of learning where movements are clarified and defined thus, giving them meaning and purpose. Movements at this stage, however, are applied mechanically and a student is more equipped to verbalize answers than to physically utilize them.

Meditation - A brief period of mental relaxation used in Kenpo to eliminate outside distractions from the mind in order to fully concentrate on activities that are to be learned in class. Taking the time to do this helps to avoid unnecessary injury which might otherwise occur.

Mental Speed - Is the speed at which the mind selects appropriate movements to effectively deal with the perceived stimulus.

Method - Is the underlying move(s) in which a block or strike can be executed. There are only two basic methods with which to execute a move--linear (straight) and circular (curved). All others are variations of these two. This is another of the ingredients that make up the analytical study of motion.

Methods of Execution - The manner in which a move is executed to insure maximum results. Such moves can follow a direct, dipping, looping, hooking, or roundhouse path.

Minor/Major Concept - The concept that a minor move is subordinate and although not devastating, it can cause ample damage and/or delay to allow the execution of a major move to occur. Major moves are strong and positive moves which cause immediate devastation.

Minor Moves - Subordinate moves which, although not devastating, cause ample damage and delay to allow for the execution of a major strike, blow, etc.

Mumbling Motion - Movements that are not distinct in application. They can be compared with words that lack diction.

Muscular Systems - An assemblage of fiber cells that can contract or expand upon a signal from the nervous system to produce body movements.

- N -

Natural Defenses - The use of body parts as defensive blocks or deterrents.

Natural Weapons - The use of body parts as offensive weapons.

Nature of the Attack - Refers to learning to : (1) identify, define and classify the types of encounters you may find yourself in; (2) thoroughly scrutinize the various methods in which weapons (natural or otherwise) can be employed; and (3) instinctively determine your choice of action in successfully combating the numerous types of encounters with which you may be confronted.

No Contact - The ability to execute a strike to a competitor with control so as not to make full contact with the designated target. This rule is adhered to at some amateur karate tournaments.

Northern Styles - Generally refers to those Martial Art systems practiced in northern China. These systems placed great emphasis on utilizing the feet as weapons, rolling on the floor and stressed an array of acrobatic feats.

- O -

Object Obscurity - The use of your limbs to hide the action of another limb. For example, after a right two finger hook is applied to your opponent's left eye, your left hand can next use your right forearm as a track to zero in on the same target. Not until the left two finger poke is almost on target do you retract your right arm. The last minute replacement of weapons makes the second action obscure. This concept parallels the principle of tracking and is classified as a method of contouring.

Obscure Zones - Those areas of space that are outside of the boundaries of peripheral sight. These zones of space are blind spots from which action can stem and be delivered unchecked.

Open End Triangle - Refers to the positioning of your body parts so that they form and opened end triangle. Use of these body formations help to funnel, wedge, trap, or prevent an opponent from injuring you.

Opposites & Reverses - Delayed Sword and Sword of Destruction are same technique using opposite hand sides. Techniques can be run on both left and right sides as well as inside and outside (leaping crane run right side against a left or right punch). It's not necessary to run them on both sides because Mr. Parker devised the techniques so that for every left side defense there is a matching technique on the right side and vice versa with the assumption that the right side is the power side.

Outer Rim Theory - An imaginary egg shaped circle that is used as a visual aid. This egg shaped pattern starts at eyebrow level and ends slightly below the region of the groin. This concept teaches one to confine their defensive and offensive moves to only those areas within the imaginary circle.

Outside Block - When blocking on outside of attackers arm the block should be at or slightly above the elbow (Attacking Mace, Thundering Hammers)

Outside Downward - A type of block requiring your blocking arm to travel from inside out. It is used for attacks that are primarily directed to targets below your waist.

Outward Parry - A block that travels from inside out as it redirects and rides the force of your opponent's strike.

- P -

Paragraphs of Motion - Series of defensive and offensive moves used consecutively on more than one opponent where there is no interruption in the flow of action.

Paranormal Perception - Intuitive awareness is the ability to feel the presence of someone or something without smelling, seeing, or hearing, or to be able to predict what to expect before it happens.

Parrying Block - Blocking moves that redirect, ride and go with the force of your opponent's action.

Passive Defensive - Keep hands above attackers hands. Gives us control.

Peach - Refers to the testicles as used in a technique.

Pendulum - Refers to a downward block or strike as used in a technique.

Penetration - This involves depth of focus. It is the extension of power beyond the selected target to insure the desired force and to compensate for distance. Because maximum velocity occurs between 70-80% of the way through your movement, this is when impact should occur

Perceptual Speed - Is the speed at which the senses monitor the stimulus that it receives, determines the meaning of the stimulus, and swiftly conveys the perceived information to the brain so that mental speed can parlay the response.

Peripheral Vision - Is your ability to see 180 to both sides from the center of your body.

Phase I - An analytical process requiring that you commence with an ideal or fixed situation. This means that you are to select a combat situation that has been structured with a prescribed sequence of movements and use this ideal technique as a basis to work from. In this phase, the term ideal implies that the situation is fixed and that the "what if" questions required in Phase II are not to be included in Phase I. It is the prescribed reaction of your opponent that completes the ideal technique.

Phase II - Add questions of "what if". The tone of questioning in this instance slightly alter from "what are they" to "what if". "What if" you do counter these additional variables, how would your opponent react? At this stage of Phase II, you are programmed to thoroughly analyze probable variations to the model technique. Expected as well as unexpected opponent reactions are projected and evaluated. The principle here is that every movement has a consequence.

Phase III - This phase involves the actual application of your newly found alternatives to the original ideal or fixed technique. Knowing what can additionally happen within the framework of the fixed technique, teaches you how to apply your variable answers to a free and changing environment. It is at this phase that you learn to formulate your variable answers.

Phonetics of Motion - Teaching a move or moves in progressive stages so as to get the maximum force from its execution. It is a method of teaching students movements by-the-number.

Physical Preparedness - All phases of preventive planning to avoid a confrontation.

Physical Speed - The promptness of physical movement--the fluency in response to the perceived stimulus.

Pinning Block - A restraining vice like move to hinder an opponent from taking action.

Pinning Check - A check where you use pressure against your opponent's weapons to nullify delivery of these weapons.

Point of Origin - The beginning, root, or source of any movement-the natural position or location of your body and natural weapon at the time action begins.

Point of Reference - The point of origin of a specific move or technique sequence which can be referred back to before proceeding to the next move or before going to the opposite side.

Position - (1) a command used while teaching to have a student assume his original starting position, (2) a set or arranged posture used in class for training purposes other than mentioned, or when fighting, and (3) how your or your opponent's body is angled.

Positioned Block - The formation of various defensive postures that automatically check incoming action. The structured positions in and of themselves act as checks.

Positioned Check - A check where you place the hand or leg in a defense position or angle to minimize entry to your vital areas.

Positions of Readiness - These are positions that can be assumed prior to, during, or after combat. having knowledge of these positions can greatly enhance your strategy by lessening the effects of your attacker as well as assuring a more successful attack. They vary in hand and leg positions which would depend upon the fighting experience of your opponent.

Postural Positions - Assumed body positions for purposes of defense or offense.

Power - Is the culmination of several principles--the sum total of which maximizes the expenditure of energy. It is the magnification of force aided by concentrated focus. Its capacity is proportionate to the physical strength, force, or energy exerted, in additions to the speed it is rendered.

Practical Kenpo - The use of logical moves in the Kenpo system that are realistic and not fanciful or impractical moves.

Practitioner - One who learns, teaches and practices the Martial Arts.

Predetermined Labeling - Wrongfully believing a person to be what he really isn't which can throw you when action occurs.

Preparatory Considerations - The mental planning of logical preventive measures to avoid danger which can eliminate a physical encounter from occurring.

Pre-set Movements - Movements that are methodically thought out prior to their application which usually works as they were conceived.

Principles - Comprehensive and fundamental rules stemming from theories which through devoted analysis, develops into proven characteristics that make them doctrine.

Primitive Stage - That stage of learning where moves are crudely executed.

Prone Positions - Lying flat or prostrate in a horizontal position.

Prongs - Refers to the thumbs as used in a technique.

Psychological Strategy - The ability to use the brain instead of the brawn to cope in an on the spot physical encounter and through verbalization totally avoid a confrontation.

Pulling - (1) bringing an object or person to you, (2) the ability to control a strike so as to come within a fraction of an inch from hitting the target.

Pushdown Block - A particular blocking method that uses the heel of the palm to control the opponent's strike that is normally directed to targets below the waist.

- Q -

Quadrant Zone Theory - This theory is more concerned with specific areas of the body that need to be protected--not attacked. The theory divides each of the zones of height, width, and depth into areas. A vertical imaginary rectangle is then superimposed over the height and width zones to create four quadrants or zones which are often referred to as gates.

- R -

Raking - The execution of a body weapon in a sweeping manner so that it grazes the target with penetrating force. It involves increasing the depth of your circular path so that you natural weapon gouges the surface of your target. It, too, is similar to a slice with two exceptions: the force is greater and the depth more penetrating. Executed properly, a rake may employ several parts of a natural weapon so that is produces a corrugated effect when making contact with the target.

Ram - Refers to a charging attack as used in a technique

Range - That distance which exists between you and your opponent.

Reactionary Postures

and Positions - Postures and positions that result from being struck. Positions that often occur in response pain.

Rebounding - Moving from one block/strike to another. For example, Delayed Sword into Sword of Destruction into Shielding Hammer

Regulate - Part of the formulation process where you can govern the speed, force, speed and force, or the intent and speed of your action.

Reverse Motion - Returning on the same path of an initiated move.

Ricocheting Block - A defensive move that uses the first block to launch into a second block. This term is often interchangeably used with a ricocheting blocking strike where a block is built into an aggressive strike.

Rod - Refers to a gun attack as used in a technique

Rolling Check - A check where you use pressure by rolling against your opponent's weapons to nullify delivery of these weapons.

Rotational Force - Moves that use revolving action to contribute to power. Torque is a product of rotating force. An example of this is the roundhouse kick used in the Kenpo technique "Shield and Sword".

Roundhousing - Any weapon that makes contact with its target before reaching the apex of the circular path in which it is traveling.

Rules - Generally refer to those moves that are to be followed to the letter. Such moves can only restrict flexibility and, therefore, ideas rather than rules are stressed in Kenpo.

Running the Table - A term used in the game of billiard where the player hits one ball after another into the side pockets until the table is completely cleared which is comparable to blocking an opponents every strike while you strike in response, thus defeating your opponent.

- S -

Salute - Refers to a heel palm strike as used in a technique.

Salutation - A series of moves and/or gestures in Kenpo to indicate respect to one you are greeting or competing against at a tournament, in opening and closing a class, etc.

Scooping - The execution of a weapon that resembles the dipping motion of a shovel. It is literally a reverse hook that is delivered vertically.

Self-Correcting - Having a thorough knowledge of the principles, concepts and theories of the Martial Arts so as to have the ability to consistently make correct judgments to maximize every move.

Sentences of Motion - Same as paragraphs of motion, only the techniques are not as prolonged.

Set - A term used by Western Chinese to describe a form. See definition of form.

Settle - The gradual sinking of your body weight and height each time you alter the width or depth of your stance. Gravitational marriage occurs with each height adjustment.

Set-Up - Refers to conditioning your opponent to react in a specific manner so that his response corresponds to your desired strategic plan.

Shaolin Monastery - The most famous historical temple in China where many of the monks who trained in the Martial Arts became noted masters in the hope of recapturing China from the Manchurians and restoring China to its rightful heirs. Shorinji Temple

Shotokan - A Japanese system of Karate developed by Gichin Funakoshi.

Shovel Kick - A specific method of kicking where the path of the action resembles the dipping motion of a shovel when it is in use. This special kick allows your foot to strike two targets with the same move.

Shuffle - Shifting the body forward and back to close or increase the distance between you and your opponent.

Signify - A physical gesture using the fingers to indicate the number of the Form that is about to be demonstrated.

Sil Lum Monastery - A Cantonese term for the Shaolin Monastery.

Skeletal Bones - Human bones that form the framework that support tissues and protect the internal organs of our bodies and which certain Kenpo strikes, etc. destruct.

Slicing - An offensive maneuver whereby the weapon being used skims the surface of the target being struck. This action is normally restricted to using a specific area of your natural weapon where no real depth occurs during contact, i.e., an eye slice. However, although the depth is not as penetrating as a rake, it is, nevertheless, effective. It is basically a minor move that is used to set your opponent up for a major move.

Sliding Check - A specialized pinning block that travels on an opponent's body by sliding from one leverage point to another. During the course of each slide, constant body contact is maintained so as not to allow for retaliation. This is a form of body contouring.

Snapping - A method of execution requiring the natural weapon to strike out and back with greater magnitude than the action of a whip and is much like that of a striking serpent.

Solar plexus - Always hit solar plexus at a 45 degree angle (up or down) because it's thin and a straight on strike is likely to miss it.

Sophisticated Moves - Single moves that have multiple results.

Sophisticated Simplicity - Basic movements that entail more than the eyes can see, though singular in appearance, they are multiple in action.

Southern Systems - Generally refers to those Martial Art systems practiced in southern China. These systems concentrated more on hand instead of foot movements.

Spear - Refers to a finger poke as used in a technique.

Specialized Moves

and Methods - Moves and methods that have distinct characteristics of their own. They are neither blocks or strikes and are, therefore, in a category or division apart from the others.

Speed - Equal to the distance divided by the time (s=d/t) it takes to act or move. There are three categories of speed-perceptual, mental, and physical (body performance). However, although categorized separately in order to analyze what speed entails, these three elements, nevertheless, function as one.

Spiritual Sensitivity - Level of mental development that is brought about by the harmonious unification of the conscious and subconscious minds which unrestrictively allows one unlimited perceptual latitude.

Spiritual Unification - Synchronization of the powers of the mind.

Spontaneous Stage - The stage where the student's reactions are performed naturally, impulsively and without restraint, effort, or premeditation.

Step Drag - Stepping forward or back with one foot as the other drags to meet it. This is one of the three methods of executing a shuffle.

Step Through - The execution of one full step forward or back, or in the case of a step through kick, it means kicking with the rear foot and planting that foot forward or kicking with the forward foot and planting that foot back.

Stomping - A thrusting method using the foot to strike down toward targets located on or near the ground.

Street Fighter - Usually an individual without any formal training who fights without ethics. Anything goes even if weapons are needed to be assured of victory.

Street Freestyle - Kenpo stylists who are street fighters with formal training. Moves are used scientifically to obtain the best results in the shortest period of time against one or more aggressors. Rules do not exist in such encounters.

Strike - The delivery of natural body weapons in hitting human targets, the method of which excludes punches and kicks.

Striking Block - Any block that bucks or goes against the force of an opponent's strike.

Storm - Refers to a club attack as used in a technique.

Style - Is the word used to describe the manner in which an individual applies and executes the system he has learned.

Superconscious State - This state is created when the conscious and subconscious minds harmonize and work as one to bring about that genie which is in each of us. When brought to the surface, this genie performs beyond the limits placed upon our natural or normal self.

Surface Concentration - Is concerned with the impact force between weapon and target and the resulting stresses that occur. It follows the principle of a pin or a nail where the surface of the natural weapon being used is as small an area as possible in order to have a more penetrating effect on the target.

Switch - Is changing from one stance or position to another while in place. This is done while moving the feet from one spot to another. This involves a lead leg where one or two things can happen, (a) you can step back then move forward, (b) step forward then move back, or a third possibility jumping in place.

Sword - Refers to the knife edge of the hand as used in a technique.

System - Is the unification of related concepts, ideas, principles, facts, truths, and basic elements of a particular school of Martial Arts.

- T -

Tae Kwon do - A Korean system of Karate that concentrates predominantly on kicks and linear motion.

Tailoring - Fitting moves to your body size, makeup and strength, in order to maximize your physical efforts.

Take Down Maneuvers - Moves of defense or attack that cause an opponent to fall to the ground to immobilize, restrain, control, or to further attack.

Talon - Refers to a grab attack as used in a technique.

T'ang Hand - The term used to describe some of the Korean Martial Art systems during a certain period of history in respect to China. T'ang Hand literally means the hand of China.

Tang Soo do - Another Korean system of karate that gives China the respect it deserves.

Target Areas - Vital areas on your or your opponent's body which can cause injury or damage when struck.

Te - An Okinawan term which means "hand". Their Art was originally called Okinawa-te or "hand Art" of Okinawa. This was later changed by the Japanese to karate meaning "empty hand". This change greatly angered the Okinawans who were Chinese by descent.

Technique - Pre-planned moves that can be used defensively or offensively with successful results.

Telegraphing - Body language that often works against you. These movements warn your opponent of your intended action and help to prepare him for his defense. This can also work against your opponent.

Theory of Proportional

Dimension - This theory teaches you how to utilize movements which are in proportion to your body. Applying this theory helps you to literally fit the moves to your body.

Three Phase Concept - Teaches you to view self-defense techniques in three phases-ideal, what if, and formulation.

Three Points of View - The suggestion that you not only observe situations from your point of view, but from your opponent's point of view as well as a bystander's.

Thrusting - A particular method used to propel a strike. It resembles an explosive push type action.

Touch - Refers to your ability to physically feel an object; in Kenpo it means also to be able to just kiss the skin with a punch, strike, etc.

Traditional - Generally refers to those practitioners of the Martial Arts who adhere to custom or the original concepts and moves of a particular system.

Tracking - This is a specific means of contouring. It is using one body limb to act as a track for another so that the accuracy of your follow-up is guaranteed.

Transition - The stage between moves; moves within moves.

Transitional Response - Instantaneously evolving from one position to another for purposes of offense or defense.

Trapping - Any stratagem designed to catch a natural weapon to prevent it from escaping.

Tongs - Chinese syndicates or associations that are organized to accomplish specific tasks that benefit them.

Twig - Refers to the arm as used in a technique

Tournament Freestyle - Sparring that is conducted at a tournament where specific rules must be adhered to.

- U -

Unconcerned Positions - Unprepared positions that are oblivious to trouble.

Unintentional Moves - Accidental and unplanned moves by an opponent which, when unchecked or not anticipated, can defeat your purpose. It is a normal reaction by an opponent.

Universal Pattern - A three dimensional pattern of movements developed by Ed Parker that was conceived to aid students to have a directional key to movement. It is a design that would also aid in systematically understanding the interrelationship of linear and circular movements and the path which they follow.

Unuseful - Movements that may not be useful in one predicament, but can be used in another predicament with positive results.

Uppercut - An upward vertical motion used to execute a punch.

Upward Blocks - All types of blocks that redirect an attacking weapon up, above, over, out or away from your head.

Useless - Is not the same as unuseful since such moves would not be effective under any condition.

- V -

Variable Expansion - The ability to randomly select solutions or build upon precepts as a result of having a thorough knowledge of the principles and concepts of the Martial Arts.

Vertical Outward - A type of block used for close range encounters that sends the attacking weapon out and away from you.

Viewpoint - As it relates to Kenpo entails having to view a confrontation from not only your point of view, but from your opponent's as well as a bystander's who might be a witness.

Vital Areas - The major weak points of the body. See target areas.

- W -

Wasted Motion - moves which have no appreciable effect.

Web of Knowledge - A spider web pattern that is used to give priority to self-defense techniques according to the degree of difficulty expended in handling an attack.

Weight Distribution - The apportionment of weight related to a particular stance. It may vary, fifty-fifty, sixty-forty, ninety-ten, etc.

What if Phase - The second analytical process of dissecting a technique. It takes in additional variables. Expected as well as unexpected actions from your opponent are projected and evaluated.

Wheel - A type of kick resembling and paralleling the path of a roundhouse kick.

Whipping - A particular method of execution that employs a snapping type of blow or strike, but with less force than a snap.

Width Cancellation - Turning attacker sideways to us. Removes two of their weapons (far arm & leg). We do this when we're at an attackers side. Examples: Lone Kimono, Backbreaker.

Width Zones - This entails four vertical segments that can be protected or attacked.

Wings - Refers to the elbows as used in a technique.

With - A very useful word in the Kenpo vocabulary which is adhered to by the more adept. It involves dual movements and eliminates the word "and". Employing this principle eliminates wasted motion and economizes on time.

White Dot Focus - Where one visualizes a white dot on a black background, which represents unawareness. The focus is on maximizing power, not protection.

Whole - As conveyed in Kenpo refers to the total experiences that makes up one's life.

Words of Motion - Refers to a combination or sequence of moves created by one arm.

- Z -

Zen - Buddhist form of meditation perpetuated by Tamo (Daruma).

Zone of Protection - Involves shielding three main zones on your body--height (or vertical), width (or horizontal) and depth.

Zone Theories - This entails visualizing imaginary boundaries or zones of height, width and depth superimposed on your or your opponent's body.

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